Revenue administration and economic policy of India.

They created a policy for gaining maximum from the land without caring much about the interest of the Indian cultivators.
Three types of land tenures.
10% of the total area under British rule i.e. Bengal, Bihar, Banaras, division of the North-Western Provinces and northern Karnataka were bought under the Zamindari system or permanent settlement.
The second revenue system called mahalwari settlement was introduced in 30 percent of the total area under British rule i.e. northwestern provinces central provinces and Punjab with some variation.
The ryotwari covered about 51 percent of the area under British rule comprising part of the Bombay and Madras Presidency, Assam, and certain other parts of British India.
The permanent settlement (jamindari system)
Mahalwari System – A revenue collection system in British India ...
Lord corn wills most conspicuous administrative measure was the permanent land revenue settlement of Bengal. It was extended to the provinces of Bihar and Orissa.
He was instructed to keep the interest of both the company and the cultivators.
  1. He decided to abolish the annual lease system.
  2. Introduce a decennial ten years settlement which was subsequently declared to be continuous.
Key features
  • The zamindar of Bengal was recognized as the owners of the land as long as they paid the revenue to the EIC.
  • The tax was fixed that is it will not increase in any circumstances.
  • Rayot becomes killers of the soil.
  • This took away the administrative judicial of zamindars.
  • No survey has done forever of land to access their value.
  • Due to heavy tax, many zamindars became defaulters.
  • Rich zamindar left the village for the town to live a luxurious life.
  • Instructed their rent collection to the agent, which included all types of illegal taxes besides the legal ones from the rayot.
  • This leads to misery arrangement the present and farmers however this proved to be a great boom to the zamindars and to the gov. Of Bengal.
Rayotwari settlement
Permanent Settlement,Ryotwari System & Mahalwari in Hindi
The rayotwari system was introduced in Madras, Banaras, Bombay, and Assam.
  1. Sir Thomas Munro introduced this system in the Madras presidency.
  2. The peasants were made the properties of land.
  3. No intermediary between peasants and the government.
  4. As long as the peasant will be paid revenue on time he was not enacted from the land.
  5. Revenue was fixed from 20-40 years at a time.
  6. It also failed because there is no systematic manner.
Mahalwari settlement
  • Introduced in 1833 mahalwari was introduced in Punjab, the central provinces, and part of the North-Western Provinces.
  • The basic unit of revenue settlement was the village or Mahal.
  • As land belongs to the village community.


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